4. Grandparents in the Bronze Age?
Keywords:Grandmother hypothesis, grandparents, care, mobility
Evolutionary biology and ethnographic analogy suggest that grandparenting has been critical to the development of human life history and may even explain modern human longevity. However, the roles and functions of grandparents have not previously been investigated in later prehistoric contexts. Ethnographic studies show that grandparents take on an extremely wide range of roles worldwide, whether this is teaching knowledge and skills, providing childcare, or even taking on parental roles and titles. In many cases, grandparents play a critical role in the support and socialization of children. Understanding the roles of grandparents thus has the potential to transform our understanding of prehistoric household and family structures. Through a case study of the Early Bronze Age Traisental in Austria, I explore potential methods for identification of grandparents in the past, and consider the effects of social formations on grandparenting.
Alber, E. 2004. Grandparents as foster-parents: transformations in foster relations between grandparents and grandchildren in northern Benin. Africa 74, 28-46.
Aldridge, J., Cheesbrough, S., Harding, C., Webster, H. and Taylor, L. 2016. The Lives of Young Carers in England (Omnibus Survey Report: Research Report). London: Department for Education.
Appleby, J. 2018. Ageing and the body in archaeology. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 28, 145-63.
Assaf, R. R., Auf der Springe, J., Siskowski, C., Ludwig, D. A., Mathew, M. S. and Belkowitz, J. 2016. Participation rates and perceptions of caregiving youth providing home health care. Journal of Community Health 41, 326-33.
Blanc, A. K., Winfrey, W. and Ross, J. 2013. New findings for maternal mortality age patterns: aggregated results for 38 countries. Public Library of Science One 8(4), p. e59864.
Chamberlain, A. 2006. Demography in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crews, D. E. 2003. Human Senescence: Evolutionary and Biocultural Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dearden, C. and Becker, S. 2004. Young Carers in the UK: the 2004 Report. London: Carers UK.
Dellmann-Jenkins, M., Blankemeyer, M. and Pinkard, O. 2000. Young adult children and grandchildren in primary caregiver roles to older relatives and their service needs. Family Relations 49, 177-86.
Eregie, C. O. 1998. Non-puerperal lactation in nutritional rehabilitation: an experience from a northern Nigerian culture. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 18, 65-7.
Euler, H. A. 2011. Grandparents and extended kin, pp. 181- 207 in Salmon, C. and Shackelford, T. K. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fenner, J. N. 2005. Cross-cultural estimation of the human generation interval for use in genetic-based population divergence studies. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128, 415-23.
Fischer, L. R. 1983. Mothers and mothers-in-law. Journal of Marriage and the Family 45, 187-92.
Fortes, M. 1949. The Web of Kinship Among the Tallensi. London: Oxford University Press.
Fruhauf, C. A, Jarrott, S. E. and Allen, K. R. 2006. Grandchildren's perceptions of caring for grandparents. Journal of Family Issues 27, 887-911.
Geissler, P. and Prince, R. 2004. Shared lives: exploring practices of amity between grandmothers and grandchildren in western Kenya. Africa 74, 95-120.
Gibson, M. A. and Mace, R. 2005. Helpful grandmothers in rural Ethiopia: a study of the effect of kin on child survival and growth. Evolution and Human Behavior 26, 469-82.
Gordon, C. C. and Buikstra, J. E. 1981. Soil pH, bone preservation, and sampling bias at mortuary sites. American Antiquity 46, 566-71.
Gowland, R. L. 2007. Age, ageism and osteological bias: the evidence from late Roman Britain. Journal of Roman Archaeology, Supplementary Series 65, 153-69.
Greve, W. and Bjorklund, D. F. 2009. The Nestor effect: extending evolutionary developmental psychology to a lifespan perspective. Developmental Review 29, 163-79.
Hawkes, K. and Coxworth, J. E. 2013. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity: a review of findings and future directions. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 22, 294-302.
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F. and Blurton Jones, N. 1989. Hardworking Hadza grandmothers, pp.341-66 in Standen, V. A. and Foley, R. A. (eds.), Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioral Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals. London: Blackwell.
Hawkes, K., O'Connell, J. F., Jones, N. B., Alvarez, H. and Charnov, E. L. 1998. Grandmothering, menopause, and the evolution of human life histories. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95, 1336-9.
Hill, K. and Hurtado, A. M. 1996. Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. London: Routledge.
Johnson, C. L. 1999. Fictive kin among oldest old African Americans in the San Francisco Bay area. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 54, S368-75.
Johow, J. and Voland, E. 2012. Conditional grandmother effects on age at marriage, age at first birth, and completed fertility of daughters and daughters-in-law in historical Krummhörn. Human Nature 23, 341-59.
Kaplan, H., Gurven, M., Winking, J., Hooper, P. L. and Stieglitz, J. 2010. Learning, menopause, and the human adaptive complex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1204, 30-42.
Kim, P. S., Coxworth, J. E. and Hawkes, K. 2012. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279, 4880-4.
Kreutz, D. 2011. Elemental and Isotopic Analysis by (Multiple Collector)-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Human Teeth from the Early Bronze Age Excavation Site Franzhausen I (Lower Austria) for the Investigation of Population Dynamics and Dietary Patterns. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Vienna.
Landes, R. 1937. Ojibwa sociology. Contributions to Anthropology 29, 44.
Lee, R. 2008. Sociality, selection, and survival: simulated evolution of mortality with intergenerational transfers and food sharing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, 7124-8.
Leopold, T. and Skopek, J. 2015. The demography of grandparenthood: an international profile. Social Forces 94, 801-32.
McCarthy, J. and Maine, D. 1992. A framework for analyzing the determinants of maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning 23, 23-33.
Molleson, T. and Cox, M. 1993. The Spitalfields Project Volume 2. The Anthropology. The Middling Sort. York: Council for British Archaeology.
Neugebauer, C. and Neugebauer, J. W. 1997. Franzhausen: Das Frühbronzezeitliche Gräberfeld I. Horn: Berger.
Notermans, C. 2003. Sharing home, food, and bed: paths of grandmotherhood in east Cameroon. Africa 74, 6-27.
Ogunlesi, T. A., Adekanmbi, F. A., Fetuga, B. M. and Ogundeyi, M. M. 2008. Non-puerperal induced lactation: an infant feeding option in paediatric HIV/AIDS in tropical Africa. Journal of Child Health Care 12, 241-8.
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. 1950. Introduction, pp. 1-85 in Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. and Forde, D. (eds.), African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. London: Routledge.
Ronsmans, C., Chowdhury, M. E., Dasgupta, S. K., Ahmed, A. and Koblinsky, M. 2010. Effect of parent's death on child survival in rural Bangladesh: a cohort study. The Lancet 375, 2024-31.
Rutstein, S. O. and Shah, I. H. 2004. Infecundity, Infertility, and Childlessness in Developing Countries (DHS Comparative Reports No 9). Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro and the World Health Organization.
Sear, R. and Mace, R. 2008. Who keeps children alive? A review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior 29, 1-18.
Slome, C. 1956. Nonpuerperal lactation in grandmothers. Journal of Pediatrics 49, 550-2.
Smith, M., Atkin, A. and Cutler, C. 2017. An age old problem? Estimating the impact of dementia on past human populations. Journal of Aging and Health 29, 68-98.
Sprenger, S., 1999. Zur Bedeuting des Grabraubes für Sozioarchäologische Gräberfeldanalysen. Horn: Berger.
Teschler-Nicola, M. and Prossinger, H. 1997. Aspekte der Paläodemographie anhand der frühbronzezeitlichen Friedhöfe des Unteren Traisentales, pp. 43-57 in Rittershofer, K. F. (ed.), Demographie der Bronzezeit: Paläodemographie - Möglichkeiten und renzen. Espelkamp: Marie Leidorf.
Tilley, L. 2015. Theory and Practice in the Bioarchaeology of Care. Heidelberg: Springer International.
Tilley, L. and Cameron, T. 2014. Introducing the index of care: a web-based application supporting archaeological research into health-related care. International Journal of Paleopathology 6, 5-9.
Tilley, L. and Oxenham, M. F. 2011. Survival against the odds: modelling the social implications of care provision to seriously disabled individuals. International Journal of Paleopathology 1, 35-42.
Van der Geest, S. 2004. Grandparents and grandchildren in Kwahu, Ghana: the performance of respect. Africa 74, 47-61.
Walker, P. L., Johnson, J. R. and Lambert, P. M. 1988. Age and sex biases in the preservation of human skeletal remains. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 76, 183-8.
Welinder, S. 2001. The archaeology of old age. Current Swedish Archaeology 9, 163-78.
Whyte, S., Alber, E. and Geissler, P. 2004. Lifetimes intertwined: African grandparents and grandchildren. Africa 74, 1-5.
Williams, G. C. 1957. Pleiotropy, natural selection and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11, 398-411.
Wood, J. W., Milner, G. R., Harpending, H. C. and Weiss, K. M. 1992. The osteological paradox: problems of inferring prehistoric health from skeletal samples. Current Anthropology 33, 343-70.
Xu, L., Silverstein, M. and Chi, I. 2014. Emotional closeness between grandparents and grandchildren in rural China: the mediating role of the middle generation. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships 12, 226-40.